“Koeliakos” in Greek means “that which belongs to the intestines” hence the term “celiac disease” or chronic bowel disease. The disease in question is often referred to under the names “gluten intolerance, or celiac disease.” Digestive symptoms are characterized by bloating, stomach upset, diarrhea as well as joint pain, headaches, and insomnia. We are therefore in the case of “intolerance” to gluten. The origin of this suffering gluten consumption. Gluten is a mixture of proteins in certain cereals such as wheat, barley and rye. In people with celiac disease, gluten ingestion causes what is called an “abnormal immune response.”
There are at level of the small intestine inflammation which damages the intestinal walls. In medical terms, this is the villi which are destroyed. These are small wave-shaped structures that constitute the “folds” of the intestine and which allows the absorption of most nutrients, vitamins and minerals. When inflammation persists in a patient‘s intestine is damaged and becomes unable to absorb some minerals, nutrients and vitamins. And this causes the medium term malnutrition even if the patient has a normal diet. Symptoms of varying intensity occur in some people with this disease and, over time, more serious problems arise beyond fatigue, depression and joint pain. Council as a radical banishment of gluten in their diet allows some patients to regain better health. In this context, should we talk about allergy, intolerance or hypersensitivity? The allergy is very rare, is detectable after ingestion of gluten that causes respiratory and digestive difficulties up to edema. Unlike intolerance, allergy does not destroy ingestion. Intolerance is actually an immune response caused by the ingestion of gluten. Unlike “classical” this abnormal reaction allergies system attacks the patient’s body by attacking his small intestine. According to some experts, three groups of patients unable to tolerate gluten are listed: allergic, intolerant and hypersensitive. These specialists distinguish allergy intolerance.
As for hypersensitivity, is the subject of scientific debate. For information, correspond to hypersensitive patients undergoing tests because they had symptoms of celiac disease without doctors will detect the presence of antibodies to justify intolerance to gluten. Some people react much faster than the gluten intolerant. To date, there are few specialists who are interested in hypersensitivity to gluten. Other professionals denounce tote aspect is of this category of patients. As for manufacturers, they are mainly for patients who stick to a “gluten free” diet (gluten-free, ie) without a medical obligation to that. What is gluten? What are the specific causes of this abnormal immune response? We will discuss these issues shortly, during the second part devoted to celiac disease.
By Aissatou KOUROUMA
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